2 Daily Bookkeeping ANNOUNCEMENTS: Textbooks for sale Claudia Spataro Contact her on the Remind app Grammar/Reading Quiz THUR Apr 5 Adjective Clauses & Phrases Adverb Clauses & Phrases Reading, unit 2 HOMEWORK: Read pp Label all of the blue adverb clauses by type: Time, place, reason, condition, contrast (use p. 285) Answer the COMPREHENSION questions (EX. B) on p. 284 You can write this in your book; I will not collect it Phrasal Verb Quiz 3 TUE May 1 run out of write down TODAY S AGENDA: 1. Review midterm 2. Review syllabus & plans until the end of the semester 3. Introduce adverb clauses (time & reason) 4. Phrasal verbs
3 Remind App I use the Remind App to make class announcements Follow these instructions to sign-up for class announcements that will be texted to you automatically You do NOT need to download the Remind App, but you can if you want to SEND messages back to me Answer any questions that follow
4 Review Midterm The highest score was 46/50 I decided to CURVE THE SCORES, which means I changed the maximum score from 50/50 46/46 You cannot keep your test Do not take pictures of the test Do not write down questions or answers
5 Adverb Clauses Adverb clauses are dependent clauses that indicate how, when, where, why, or under what conditions things happen I went home when the game was over. She dropped out of the race because she was injured. Everywhere I go, I try to have a good time. Your grades will improve if you practice at home. They also indicate a contrast of information They won the game although the score was very close
6 Exercise 1, p Contrast 3. Reason 4. Time 5. Condition 6. Contrast 7. Time 8. Contrast 9. Place 10. Time
7 Exercise 2, p. 289 Let s see how much we already know about adverb clauses (and sports!) before we learn about each type in depth! 1. Before 2. If 3. unless 4. after 5. Though 6. When 7. until 8. If
8 Time Clauses These indicate when something happens The race will start as soon as everyone is in place. We always drink water before we start a game. Some time clause words: After, as, as soon as, before, by the time, once, since, until, when, whenever, while, etc. Have you used all of these?
9 Once Once means starting from the moment something happens She will earn a lot more money once she finishes her degree. Once I get paid, I will write you a check. She felt a lot more independent once she moved out of her parents house.
10 Until/till Until and till mean the same thing They mean up to a certain a time, but till is only used in conversation I ll wait here until they arrive. I can t leave the house until my mom gets here to watch the puppy. Until we meet again, I will be waiting.
11 Note Remember that if you are making a complex sentence in the future ( will or be going to ), the dependent clause is not in the future tense We ll leave when they get here. I am going to scream as soon as we get to Halloween Horror Nights. By the time Christmas comes, I will be exhausted!
12 VERB TENSE PRACTICE 1. B 2. D 3. C 4. D 5. D 6. A 7. B 8. C 9. B 10. B 11. B 12. A 13. D 14. B
13 4:00 Judy left her house 4:15 Judy parked her car in the mall parking lot and headed inside 4:25 Unbeknownst to Judy, a thief broke into her car & stole her radio 4:45 Judy returned to her car with a new pair of jeans 4:45 Judy discovered the broken window 4:46 Judy called the police 4:55 The police arrived 4:55 Judy began crying in frustration by the time after while when just as
14 Place Clauses These indicate where something happens Major athletes are popular wherever they go. Professional sports are played where there are big stadiums. Some place clause words: Anywhere, everywhere, where, wherever, etc. Have you used all of these? Anywhere I go, I want to go where
15 Why (REASON) Clauses These indicate why something happens She won the medal because she had practiced tirelessly. As I am very sick, I can t go to Las Vegas this weekend. Now that Jack is unemployed, he can t pay his bills. Some why clause words: As, because, now that, since, etc. Have you used all of these?
16 Now that Now that means because now Now that I have finished the semester, I m going to rest a few days and take a trip. Because I have finished the semester now, I m going to rest a few days and take a trip. Now that is used for present causes of present or future actions!
17 Note Both since and as can be used in both time clauses and why (reason) clauses Since Anna doesn t like sports, she refused to go to the game. Anna has been waiting since she arrived at the game. He had to drop out of the game as he was badly hurt. As he was running, he fell and hurt himself. WHEN SINCE IS USED AS A REASON, THE PRESENT PERFECT IS NOT ALWAYS NECESSARY!!!
18 PRACTICE Take a look at the handout from the teacher (Adverb Clause Practice) Combine the sentences using subordinating conjunctions of reason
19 ANSWERS 1. Now that the weather is warm, we can 2. Since the students had done poorly on the test, the teacher decided 3. Because it is heavier than hot air, cold hair hovers 4. Since you paid for the theater tickets, please let me 5. Now that the rain has stopped, do you want to for a walk? 6. Because our TV set was broken, we listened 7. Since there are few jobs available in rural areas, many young 8. Now that the civil war has ended, a new government is being 9. Since 92,000 people already have reservations with an airline company for a trip to the moon, I doubt that
20 Expected or Unexpected? Look at these two sentences Which sentence expresses an unexpected result? Because I was tired, I went to bed early. Even though I was very tired, I stayed up late.
21 Contrast Clauses These indicate a contrast between the two clauses He lost the race although he was favored to win. Even though she is tall, she doesn t want to be a model. Some why clause words: Although, even though, though, whereas, while, etc. Have you used all of these?
22 Unexpected Result Although, even though, and though are used to show an unexpected result Though is quite young, he was selected for the team. I got hired even though I don t have a lot of experience. Note: contrast clauses almost always include a comma (before or after) You try!
23 Expected or Unexpected? Fill in the blank with either a subordinating conjunction of reason or contrast to show if it was expected or unexpected Tim s in good physical shape he doesn t exercise much. Melissa has a job, she doesn t make enough money to support her four children. Yoko has a job, she is able to pay her rent and feed her family. Joe speaks Spanish well he lived in Mexico for a year. A newborn baby kangaroo can find its mother s pouch its eyes are not yet open. the earthquake damaged the bridge across Skunk River, the Smiths were able to cross the river they had a boat.
24 Direct Contrast While and whereas show a direct contrast (not necessarily unexpected information) While skiing is very expensive, basketball is cheap. I like dogs whereas my roommate prefers cats. Which one is more formal?
25 While While is used both for contrast and time! While they lost the game, they played their best. We ate while we were watching the game. I can t believe she won, while her sister lost. I can t believe she won while he sister was losing.
26 Complete the Sentences Some people have curly hair while. Whereas some people only know their native language,. Some people prefer to live in the country whereas. While, others like a quiet night in. Some people whereas. Some countries while.
27 Differences Between Me and You Using the handout provided by the teacher, complete some information about yourself Now, find someone else in the class to interview and record their responses to the same question Analyze the information and create some sentences of contrast to share with the class!
28 Condition Clauses These indicate under what conditions something happens If he apologizes profusely, she will take him back. She won t answer his calls unless he apologizes. Some condition clause words: Even if, if, only if, unless, in case, etc. Have you used all of these?
29 What do they mean? Unless = something will happen or be true if another thing does not happen or is not true Unless you train a great deal, you won t be a champion. This will not happen unless you do this. I can t go to the movies unless I clean my room. Can you change these sentences to only if? Unless
30 Practice! Complete each sentence TWICE! Once with if and once with unless 1. The teacher will be absent tomorrow if he is not feeling good. unless he is feeling good. 2. She is going to stay up until two in the morning 3. You can t travel abroad 4. You ll get hungry during class 5. I won t be able to take pictures at the concert tonight
31 What do they mean? Even if = the condition does not matter; the result will be the same Even if he practices constantly, he won t make the team. Even if I live in France for a year, I will never learn French. Even if
32 Even if practice Do these sentences have the same meaning? Even if I get an invitation to the reception, I m not going to go. I won t go to the reception without an invitation. Even if you don t want help, I plan to be at your house at 9:00. I m going to help you no questions! I have to go to work tomorrow even if I don t feel better. Whether I go to work or not depends on how I feel. I won t forgive John even if he apologizes. I don t care if John apologizes. I will feel the same way.
33 Even if Situations Using the handout (Exercise 28, p. 380) write sentences about these situations using even if
34 What do they mean? In case = in order to be prepared for a possible future happening We d better take along some extra money in case we run into difficulties. I am going to invite this girl I m dating to the party in case my ex is there. In case
35 Unless Practice Using the handout (Exercise 30, p. 381) combine the sentences using in case
36 What do they mean? Only if = only one condition will produce a result Bi-Yun will make the team only if another athlete drops out. I will see the movie only if it gets good reviews. Only if Inversion occurs if the sentence begins with only if!
37 Only if Practice Continuation of exercises from Azar handout
38 Exercise 3, p. 290 Although Greek city-states were often at war with one another, Olympic contestants stopped fighting during the games. After they had been held over 1,000 years, the ancient Olympic Games were outlawed by the Roman emperor Theodosius I Because (Since) Romans thought Greeks wore too few clothes, Theodosius outlawed the games in 393. French educator Pierre de Coubertin revived the Olympics since (because) he thought they would promote international peace.
39 Exercise 3, p. 290 Tug-of-war was dropped from the Olympics in 1920 when (after, because, since) American and British athletes disagreed about how it should be played. New Olympic sports often first appear as demonstration events before they are adopted as medal sports. Any sport can potentially become a medal event if it can be scored and fulfills certain criteria.
REVIEW: SENTENCE ADVERBS Occur at the beginning, middle, end Beginning or end = comma Middle Position After Be verb: I am basically in favor of that. After modals: I have to basically agree with the plan.
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