# Chapter 5: Synchronous Sequential Logic

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1 Chapter 5: Synchronous Sequential Logic NCNU_2016_DD_5_1 Digital systems may contain memory for storing information. Combinational circuits contains no memory elements the outputs depends only on the inputs Sequential circuits, however, act as storage elements and have memory. to store, retain, and then retrieve information when needed at a later time. Block diagram of a sequential circuit: present state next state A combinational circuit with memory elements forming a feedback path. The binary information stored in memory defines the state. Outputs are determined by Inputs and present state. Next state is also determined by Inputs and present state.

2 Synchronous vs. Asychronous NCNU_2016_DD_5_2 There are two main types of sequential circuits: synchronous and asynchronous. The behavior of a synchronous sequential circuit can be defined from the knowledge of its signals at discrete instants of time. The behavior of an asynchronous sequential circuit depends upon the input signals at any instant of time and the order in which the inputs change. The storage elements commonly used in asynchronous sequential circuits are time-delay devices. Thus, an asynchronous sequential circuit may be regarded as a combinational circuit with feedback (no actual storage elements are necessary). Asynchronous sequential circuit may become unstable at times, imposing many difficulties on the designer, and will not be covered in this course.

3 Clocked Sequential Circuits NCNU_2016_DD_5_3 Synchronous sequential circuits affect the storage elements at only discrete instants of time. A clock generator performs the synchronization, which provides a clock signal having a periodic train of clock pulses, commonly denoted as clock or clk. The storage elements are affected only with the arrival of each clock pulse. In practice, the clock pulses determine when computational activity will occur within the circuit, and other signals (external inputs and otherwise) determine what changes will take place affecting the storage elements and the outputs. Synchronous sequential circuits that use clock pulses to control storage elements are called clocked sequential circuits and are the type most frequently encountered in practice; also called synchronous circuits because the activity within the circuit and the resulting updating of stored values is synchronized to the clock pulses. The design of synchronous circuits is feasible because they seldom manifest instability problems and their timing is easily broken down into independent discrete steps, each of which can be considered separately. Design system with synchronous circuits as you can.

4 Filp-Flops as Storage Elements NCNU_2016_DD_5_4 Flip-flops (FF), 1-bit memory, are used as the basic storage elements. A sequential circuit may use many flip-flops to store as many bits as necessary. The output of a flip-flop is either 0 or 1 (two states). The outputs (and next states) are combinational logic function of the inputs to the circuit and/or the values stored in the flip-flops (the previous states). The new value is stored (updated) in flip-flop when the clock pulse occurs. present states next states

5 Clock Synchronization NCNU_2016_DD_5_5 The next value of the flip-flops must have reached a stable value before the occurrence of the clock pulse, consequently, the combinational logic must respond to a change in the state of the flip-flops in time to be updated before the next clock pulse arrives. Propagation delay of the combinational logic determines the minimum interval between clock pulses to allow the circuit to operate correctly. The state of the flip-flops changes only by a clock pulse transition for example, when the value of the clock signals changes from 0 to 1 (positive edge). If the clock pulse is not active, the input and output of the flip-flop is effectively isolated; flip-flop can be regarded as two gates controlled complementarily. Thus, the transition from one state to the next occurs only at predetermined intervals dictated by the clock pulses, that is so called synchronization. Storage elements that operate with signal levels (rather than signal transitions) are referred to as latches; those controlled by a clock transition are flip-flops. Latches are said to be level sensitive devices; flip-flops are edge-sensitive ones. For design simply and function correctly, use flip-flops as possible as you can.

6 5-3 Latches NCNU_2016_DD_5_6 The SR latch has two cross-coupled NOR gates (or two cross-coupled NAND gates) and two inputs labeled with S for set and R for reset. When output Q = 1 and Q = 0, the latch is said to be in the set state, and Q = 0 and Q = 1, is in the reset state. Forbidden state: Inputs Q and Q are normally the complement of each other When both inputs are 1 at the same time result both outputs equal to 0 If both inputs then change to 0 simultaneously, the device will enter an unpredictable or undefined state or a metastable state The unpredictable state will depend on the order in which S and R return to 0. Q Q

7 SR Latch with NAND Gates NCNU_2016_DD_5_7 Both inputs are normally at 1. Input 0 to the S (R) causes Q (Q ) to be 1, putting the latch in the set (reset) state. The forbidden condition is both inputs being 0 at the same time. The NAND latch is low activated (active low). 0 x 0 1 Q Q 0 x 1 1 Q Q 1 x 1 0 Q Q Q Q 1 x 0 0 Q 0 disables AND, 1 enables AND 0 enables OR, 1 disables OR Q

8 SR Latch with Enable NCNU_2016_DD_5_8

9 D Latch (Transparent Latch) NCNU_2016_DD_5_9 Ensure S and R are never equal to 1 at the same time to eliminate the undesirable condition of the indeterminate state in the SR latch. As En is at 0, the cross-coupled SR latch has both inputs at 1 and the circuit cannot change state regardless of the value of D. Transparent: as En = 1, Q (Q ) follows the change of D When En transits from 1 to 0, the binary information at D at the transition time is retained (i.e., stored) at Q until En raises to 1 again. Q Q Characteristic equation: Q(t+1) = D regard En as the Clk signal transparent

10 Trigger Trigger: a latch or flip-flop is switched by a change of the control input Level triggered latches Edge triggered flip-flops NCNU_2016_DD_5_10 race 1 The transparent latch (level sensitive) may fail due to a race condition. The state of a latch changes as soon as the clock changes to 1, and the new state appears at the output while the clock is still active (due to transparent). This output may race through the combinational circuit to the latch input. If the clock is still active, the latch will respond to the new value again and a new output state may occur resulting an unpredictable situation. To avoid race, the output of a latch cannot be applied directly or through combinational logic to the input of the same or another latch when all the latches are triggered by a common clock source.

11 Master slave D Flip-flop NCNU_2016_DD_5_11 D flip-flop consists of two D latches and an inverter, the first latch is called the master and the second the slave. The two latches are controlled (enabled) complementarily; they flip and flop alternatively. Samples D and changes Q only at the negative edge of the clock (Clk), the transition of the clock from 1 to 0. Positive edge triggered D flip-flop can also be constructed by adding an inverter to the Clk input. Clk D latch Clk

12 D-type Positive-edge-triggered Flip-flop NCNU_2016_DD_5_12 A more compact realization. Two latches respond to the D (data) and Clk (clock) inputs, and the third latch provides the outputs for the flip-flop. 1 If Clk = 0 S = R = 1, Q unchanged. If D = 0 when Clk becomes 1 R = 0 Q = 0. Then any change in D while Clk = 1 R remains 0 does not affect the output Q (Q ) Similarly. If D = 1 when Clk becomes 1 S = 0 Q = 1. Then any change in D while Clk = 1 S remains 0 does not affect the output Q (Q ). The output only responds to the positive edge of Clk.

13 Timing Parameters NCNU_2016_DD_5_13 Setup time D input must be maintained at a constant value prior to the application of the positiveedge of Clk pulse (rise) equal to the propagation delay through gates 4 and 1 data to the internal latches Hold time D input must not changes after the application of the positive Clk pulse equal to the propagation delay of gate 3 clock to the internal latch Clk Propagation delays, clock to output. D setup hold

14 Graphic Symbols NCNU_2016_DD_5_14 Latch Edge-triggered D flip-flop - low active - edge triggered

15 JK Flip-Flop NCNU_2016_DD_5_15 Edge-triggered D flip-flop requires the smallest number of gates, and is the most economical and efficient flip-flop constructed in VLSI IC design. Other types of flip-flops can be constructed by D flip-flop and external logic. JK and T flip-flops are two other used flip-flops. JK flip-flop: (to avoid the forbidden indeterminate state) D = JQ + K Q Characteristic equation: Q(t+1) = JQ + K Q J K Q(t) Q(t+1)

16 T Flip-Flop NCNU_2016_DD_5_16 T (toggle) flip-flop can be obtained from a JK flip-flop with J and K tied together. Can also be constructed with a D flip-flop and an exclusive-or gate. D = T Q = TQ + T Q Characteristic equation: Q(t+1) = TQ + T Q Useful for designing binary counters. T Q(t) Q(t+1)

17 Asynchronous Inputs NCNU_2016_DD_5_17 The state of the flip-flops is unknown when power is turned on. Asynchronous inputs are used to force the flip-flop to a known starting state (initialization) independently of the clock. Preset or direct set sets the flip-flop to 1. Clear or direct reset clears the flip-flop to 0. D flip-flop with asynchronous reset: 1 1

18 NCNU_2016_DD_5_18 Positive Edge-triggered D-FF with Preset and Clear 74HC74 dual D flip-flop

19 5-5 Analysis of Clocked Sequential Ckts NCNU_2016_DD_5_19 Analysis describes what a circuit will do under certain operating conditions. For clocked sequential circuits, the outputs and the next state are both a function of the inputs and the present state. The analysis of a sequential circuit consists of obtaining a state table or a state diagram for the time sequence of inputs, outputs, and internal states. Boolean expressions can also describe the behavior of the sequential circuit. A logic diagram is recognized as a clocked sequential circuit if it includes flip-flops with clock inputs. The flip-flops may be of any type (D, JK, T), and the logic diagram may or may not include combinational logic gates.

20 NCNU_2016_DD_5_20 State Equations The behavior of a clocked sequential circuit can be described algebraically by means of state equations; also called transition equations, specifies the next state as a function of the present state and inputs. Example: 0-detector two D flip-flops A and B, an input x and output y State equations: A(t + 1) = A(t)x(t) + B(t)x(t) B(t + 1) = A (t)x(t) t: Present time t+1: Next time Output: y(t) = [A(t) + B(t)]x (t)

21 State Table NCNU_2016_DD_5_21 State table (also called a transition table) enumerates the time sequence of inputs, outputs, and flip-flop states. The table consists of four labels: present state, input, next state, and output. List all possible binary combinations of present states and inputs. State equations are derived as: A(t + 1) = Ax + Bx B(t + 1) = A x Output equation: y = (A + B)x similar to a truth table Also can be expressed with flip-flop input equations: D A = Ax + Bx D B = A x y = (A + B)x

22 Second Form of State Table NCNU_2016_DD_5_22 In general, a sequential circuit with m flip-flops and n inputs needs 2 m+n rows in the state table. A second from of state table uses only three labels: present state, next state, and output; and the input conditions are enumerated under the next-state and output sections. similar to a K-map

23 State Diagram NCNU_2016_DD_5_23 Graphical representation of a state table Well matched with the second form of state table Each circle represents an assigned state Directed lines, indicate a state transition, are labeled with input/output In this example, every circle (state) has two outgoing directed lines to other circles A directed line connecting a circle with itself indicates that no change of state occurs. The analysis steps are summarized as: circuit equations state table state diagram

24 Analysis with D Flip-flops NCNU_2016_DD_5_24 A sequential circuit with state equation: D A = A x y D A : D flip-flop with output A; x and y: inputs; and no output given. For a D flip-flop, the state equation is the same as the input equation. One flip-flop has two states. Two inputs have four possible combinations for each state.

25 Analysis with JK Flip-flops NCNU_2016_DD_5_25 The next-state values of JK or T flip-flops can be derived as follows: 1. Determine the flip-flop input equations in terms of the present state and input variables. 2. List the binary values of each input equation. 3. Use the corresponding flip-flop characteristic table to determine the next-state values in the state table. The flip-flop input equations J A = B K A = Bx J B = x K B = A x + Ax = A x

26 NCNU_2016_DD_5_26 J A = B, K A = Bx J B = x, K B = A x + Ax = A x The above equations determine the flip-flop inputs to derive the next state Or, derive the state equations using characteristic eq.

27 Using Characteristic Equations NCNU_2016_DD_5_27 Characteristic equation of JK FF: Q(t+1) = JQ + K Q So for the two JK FFs A(t + 1) = J A A + K A A, B(t + 1) = J B B + K B B Substituting the values of J A, K A, J B, and K B A(t + 1) = BA + (Bx ) A= A B + AB + Ax B(t + 1) = x B + (A x) B = B x + ABx + A Bx The Next state can be derived from the above two equations. State diagram: J A = B, K A = Bx J B = x, K B = A x + Ax = A x

28 Analysis with T Flip-flops NCNU_2016_DD_5_28 Example: two T flip-flops A and B, one input x, and one output y Two input equations and an output equation: T A = Bx T B = x y = AB

29 NCNU_2016_DD_5_29 Input equations and an output equation: T A = Bx, T B = x, y = AB Characteristic equation of T flip-flops: Q(t + 1) = T Q = T Q + TQ The values for the next state A(t + 1) = (Bx) A + (Bx)A = AB + Ax + A Bx B(t + 1) = x B

30 Finite State Machines (FSM) NCNU_2016_DD_5_30 A sequential circuit has inputs, outputs, and internal states. Two commonly used finite state machine models of sequential circuits, the Mealy model and the Moore model, differing only in the way the output is generated. The outputs of Moore circuit are synchronized with the clock, depend only on flip-flop outputs that are synchronized with the clock. The output of the Mealy machine is the value that is present immediately before the active edge of the clock.

31 5-7 State Reduction and Assignment NCNU_2016_DD_5_31 The design (synthesis) of a sequential circuit starts from a set of specifications and culminates in a logic diagram. Two sequential circuits may exhibit the same input output behavior (function), but have a different number of internal states in their state diagram. The current section discusses certain properties of sequential circuits that may simplify a design by reducing the number of gates and flip-flops it uses. In general, reducing the number of flip-flops reduces the cost of a circuit. State-reduction, reducing the number of states in a state table, while keeping the external input output requirements unchanged, can reduce the number of flip-flops used in a sequential circuit. Since m flip-flops produce 2 m states, a reduction in the number of states may (or may not) result in a reduction in the number of flip-flops. Reducing the number of flip-flops sometimes results the equivalent circuit with fewer flip-flops but more combinational gates to realize its next state and output logic.

32 State Reduction Example NCNU_2016_DD_5_32 Two circuits are equivalent if identical input sequences are applied to the two circuits and identical outputs occur for all input sequences, then one may be replaced by the other. State reduction reduces the number of states in a sequential circuit without altering the input output relationships. Only the input-output sequences are important in this example. Consider the input sequence starting from the initial state a. Complete the sequence to get the follows:

33 NCNU_2016_DD_5_33 State table is more convenient for state reduction than a diagram. State reduction algorithm: Two states are said to be equivalent if, for each member of the set of inputs, they give exactly the same output and send the circuit either to the same state or to an equivalent state. When two states are equivalent, one of them can be removed without altering the input output relationships. Back to the example: States e and g both go to states a and f and have outputs of 0 and 1 for x = 0 and x = 1, respectively. States g and e are equivalent, and one of these states can be removed. States f and d are also equivalent, so state f can be removed and replaced by d.

34 Original State Table NCNU_2016_DD_5_34

35 Reduced State Diagram NCNU_2016_DD_5_35

36 State Assignment NCNU_2016_DD_5_36 States must be assigned with unique coded binary values to implement the physical components. For a circuit with m states, the assigned codes must contain n bits, where 2 n m. Unused states (codes) are treated as don t-care conditions during the design. Don t-care conditions usually help in obtaining a simpler circuit. The simplest way to code states is to use binary counting code or Gray code without guaranteeing a better result. One-hot assignment, uses one flip-flop per state, ensures only one bit is equal to 1 while all others are kept at 0, usually leads to simpler decoding logic for the next state and output, results a faster machines, and the silicon area required by the extra flip-flops can be offset by the area saved by using simpler decoding logic.

37 Binary Assignment NCNU_2016_DD_5_37 A different assignment will result in a state table with different binary values for the states. The binary form of the state table is used to derive the next state and output --forming combinational logic part of the sequential circuit. The complexity of the combinational circuit depends on the binary state assignment chosen. Sometimes, the name transition table is used for a state table with a binary assignment. a b c d e A great many possible binary assignments may exist.

38 5-8 Design Procedure NCNU_2016_DD_5_38 A synchronous sequential circuit is made up of flip-flops and combinational gates. The design of the circuit consists of choosing the flip-flops and then finding a combinational gate structure that, together with the flip-flops, produces a circuit which fulfills the stated specifications. The design steps for synchronous sequential circuits can be summarized as: 1. From the word description and specifications of the desired operation, derive a state diagram for the circuit. 2. Reduce the number of states if necessary. 3. Assign binary values to the states. 4. Obtain the binary-coded state table. 5. Choose the type of flip-flops to be used. 6. Derive the simplified flip-flop input equations and output equations. 7. Draw the logic diagram.

39 Synthesis using D Flip-flops NCNU_2016_DD_5_39 Example: detect a sequence of three or more consecutive 1 s in a string of bits coming through an input line. x Clock Sequence Detector y Assign binary codes to the states and list the state table. Two D FFs (A and B) represent the four states, and one input x and one output y. S i : i consecutive 1 s is detected S 0 : starting state Moore FSM

40 NCNU_2016_DD_5_40 The characteristic equation of the D flip-flop is Q(t + 1) = D Q The flip-flop input equations can be obtained directly from the next-state columns of A and B and expressed in sum-of-minterms form as A(t + 1) = D A (A,B, x) = (3, 5, 7) B(t + 1) = D B (A,B, x) = (1, 5, 7) y(a,b, x) = (6, 7) The Boolean equations are simplified by K-maps: D A = Ax + Bx D B = Ax + B x y = AB

41 Logic Diagram of the Sequence Detector NCNU_2016_DD_5_41 D A = Ax + Bx D B = Ax + B x y = AB

42 Excitation Tables NCNU_2016_DD_5_42 The advantage of designing with D FFs is that the Boolean equations describing the inputs to the flip-flops can be obtained directly from the state table, the input equations are obtained directly from the next state. This is not the case for the JK and T types of flip-flops. T Q(t) Q(t+1) A state diagram flip-flop input functions straightforward for D flip-flops we need excitation tables for JK and T flip-flops a table that lists the required inputs for a given change of state. J K Q(t) Q(t+1)

43 Synthesis using JK Flip-flops NCNU_2016_DD_5_43 The same example + The state table and JK flip-flop inputs

44 K-Maps for JK Input Equations NCNU_2016_DD_5_44

45 Logic Diagram with JK Flip-flops NCNU_2016_DD_5_45 J A = Bx K A = Bx J B = x K B = (A x)

46 Synthesis using T Flip-flops NCNU_2016_DD_5_46 Example: n-bit binary counter consists of n flip-flops that can count in binary from 0 to 2 n - 1. The state diagram of a 3-bit counter is shown below, the input is the clock and the output is the state. A 2 A 1 A 0 3-bit Counter Clock

47 NCNU_2016_DD_5_47 Binary counters are constructed most efficiently with T flip-flops. Three flip-flops A 2, A 1, and A 0 are used. +

48 NCNU_2016_DD_5_48

49 NCNU_2016_DD_5_49 Flip-Flop Applications: Parallel Data Storage A group of flip-flops can store several bits of data from parallel lines simultaneously. Parallel data lines connected to the D inputs of flip-flops. All the clock inputs of the flip-flops are connected together, so that all the flip-flops are triggered by the same clock pulse. CLR is for asynchronous reset. It is a basic register, will be covered in the next chapter.

50 Flip-Flop Applications: Frequency Division NCNU_2016_DD_5_50 The D flip-flop and J-K flip-flop as a divide-by-2 device. Two D flip-flops used to divide the clock frequency by 4.

51 Flip-Flop Applications: Counting NCNU_2016_DD_5_51 Two J-K flip-flops used to generate a binary count sequence (00, 01, 10, 11).

52 Homework #5 NCNU_2016_DD_5_ A sequential circuit with two D flip-flops A and B, two inputs, x and y ; and one output z is specified by the following next-state and output equations: A(t + 1) = xy + xb B(t + 1) = xa + xb z = A (a) Draw the logic diagram of the circuit. (b) List the state table for the sequential circuit. (c) Draw the corresponding state diagram. 5.8 Derive the state table and the state diagram of the sequential circuit shown below. Explain the function that the circuit performs.

53 NCNU_2016_DD_5_ A sequential circuit has two JK flip-flops A and B, two inputs x and y, and one output z. The flip-flop input equations and circuit output equation are JA = Bx + B y KA = B x + y JB = A x KB = A + xy z = (A + B)x y (a) Draw the logic diagram of the circuit. (b) Tabulate the state table. (c) Derive the state equations for A and B For the following state table (a) Draw the corresponding state diagram. (b) Tabulate the reduced state table. (c) Draw the state diagram corresponding to the reduced state table.

54 NCNU_2016_DD_5_ Design a sequential circuit with two D flip-flops A and B, and one input x_in. (a) When x_in = 0, the state of the circuit remains the same. When x_in = 1, the circuit goes through the state transitions from 00 to 01, to 11, to 10, back to 00, and repeats. (b) When x_in = 0, the state of the circuit remains the same. When x_in =1, the circuit goes through the state transitions from 00 to 11, to 01, to 10, back to 00, and repeats.

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